16.3 - More cases of cases (2)


The principal use of the dative is to express the indirect object of a sentence. Additionally, a significant number of verbs and impersonal constructions take the dative; this point has been covered on pages 7.5 and 14.7.

Other constructions using the dative include:

мені, йому, їй...
I, he, she is ...
мені, йому, їй...
It's difficult (for me, him, her)
мені, йому, їй...
I, he, she
 has to, ought to ... (It is necessary ...)
Ньютону на голову впало яблуко An apple fell on Newton's head
(to Newton on his head)


The principal uses of the instrumental have been outlined on page 7.6. Other uses of the instrumental include:

  • in expressions of time, usually denoting time during which an action occurs, for example:
зимою, весною, літом, осінню
(alternative forms of взимку,
навесні, влітку, восени)
in winter, spring, summer, autumn
ночами during the nights, at night time
часом at times, sometimes
цими днями currently
  • to denote the manner in which something occurs (and also in comparisons) as, for example:
Коли виникає напружена ситуація, намагайтеся говорити рівним, спокійним голосом. In a tense situation try to speak in a level, calm voice.
Сніг окутав землю пухкою периною. The snow enveloped the earth like a downy duvet.

To revise some of the uses of instrumental, read this extract from a description of a market.

я [...] побачив ярмарок [...] , безкраїй людський тлум з худобою, свиньми, кіньми, козами, вівцями, гусьми, качками та курми. З крамом, горщиками, кавунами, динями, яриною, зерном, борошном, м'ясом, іграшками, музиками, що викрикували свої пісні, а я [...] дивився на те широко розкритими очима.

Валерій Шевчук, «Книга історій»

To see if you have understood the text, and to appreciate how the author has used the instrumental to create the atmosphere of the market, do Exercise 16.3A.

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© 2007 Marta Jenkala